Of all of the epic nomenclature failures within the historical past of “the New World” – suppose Columbus’s blithe dubbing of the Lucayan, Taíno, and Arawak peoples he confronted in 1492 as “Indians” – no case has been extra bizarrely bungled than the turkey.
The genus Meleagris includes two species: meleagris gallopavo (the wild turkey, which ranges from Mexico to Canada, and was first domesticated 1000’s of years in the past by the ancient Mayans) and meleagris ocellata (the ocellated turkey, which persists primarily within the forests of Yucatan).
These wattled waddlers – they fly as irregularly as peacocks – are so intrinsic to the American panorama that Benjamin Franklin argued forcefully they need to change the Bald Eagle (“a Chicken of dangerous ethical Character”) because the US nationwide image: “For the Reality the Turkey is in Comparability a way more respectable Chicken, and withal a real authentic Native. He’s in addition to, although a little bit useless & foolish, a Chicken of Braveness, and wouldn’t hesitate to assault a Grenadier of the British Guards who ought to presume to invade his Farm Yard with a crimson Coat on.”
However dropping out to the raptor is just one debacle within the annals of this hapless fowl. The story will get a lot worse, as a result of no creature has ever been so mistakenly named in each language of the world, aside from the indigenous American (it’s completely fairly nalaaohki pileewa, or “the native fowl” in Miami-Illinois Algonquin, for instance).
The Malaysians name it “Dutch hen” (ayam belanda) and the Cambodians consult with “French hen” (moan barang). In Egyptian Arabic it’s “Roman hen” or dik rumi, however throughout within the Levant it turns into dik habash, “the Ethiopian hen”.
Nestled deep on this thicket of epithets, an enigma lurks, which I’ve made a convention of dissecting at Thanksgiving meals. On this quarantine 12 months, with my Indian American relations locked down in scattered isolation, I’ll discover it with you as an alternative. Our quest centres on this straightforward query: why accomplish that many languages and cultures establish these North American natives as “the birds from India” (oiseaux d’Inde, or just dinde in French).
I imagine one essential clue is what the Turks name it themselves: Hindi (or just, “from India). One other is the phrases utilized by the Dutch and various Scandinavians, that are all variations of kalcun, indicating the particular origin of Calicut on India’s west coast.
Right here, we should always observe many individuals have thought-about these similar precise details, and dismissed the thought there’s something difficult to be ferreted out. Their logic goes this manner: Columbus thought he’d arrived in India, and simply as Native Individuals have been known as Indians, that’s why so many Europeans referred to “the Indian fowl”.
Individually, a complete host of commentators theorise that Europeans had turn out to be used to purchasing guinea fowl – the household Numididae is native to Africa, and appears vaguely much like Meleagris – from Turkish retailers as “turkey-cocks”, so when turkeys confirmed up within the 16th century, the English simply caught to the identify they have been acquainted with.
However what if English did certainly encounter “the turkey” from the nation of the identical identify? Might it’s that the French, Dutch, Russians – and plenty of assorted others together with the Turks themselves – have been merely stating the details after they named this new fowl after the land from the place they realized about it for the primary time?
Each prospects are eminently believable, as a result of we all know different profoundly important flows of crops, animals, merchandise, concepts and applied sciences weren’t linearly trans-Atlantic. On one finish, from the onset of the 16th century, criss-crossing Carreira da Índia (India run) armadas linked Lisbon to Brazil to East Africa to Goa.
Individually, appreciable forwards and backwards related the Estado da India – the Portuguese state headquartered on the banks of the Mandovi river from 1510 – to the Mughal courts in Fatehpur Sikri, Agra and Allahabad, in addition to the Deccan Sultanates, all of which have been integral components of the Persianate cosmopolis that spilled to the gates of Europe through the Safavids and Ottomans.
All one of the best dinner desk mysteries come equipped with visible clues, and ours is most superbly furnished with an beautiful 1612 miniature portray from the court docket of Jahangir. The “conqueror of the world” had deputed Muqurrab Khan – described within the emperor’s autobiography Tuzuk-e-Jahangiri (or Jehangirnama) as “an outdated retainer of this dynasty” – to commerce with the teeming, wildly globalised port of Goa to amass pure curiosities, and he had returned with this fowl (two years earlier his prize had been a pair of dodos.)
Jehangir writes with nice fascination and glee:
“One of many animals was bigger in physique than a peahen and considerably smaller than a peacock. Typically when it shows itself throughout mating it spreads its tail and its different feathers like a peacock and dances. Its beak and legs are like a rooster’s. Its head, neck, and wattle continually change shade. When it’s mating, they’re as crimson as may be – you’d suppose it had all been set with coral. After some time these similar locations turn out to be white and appear to be cotton. Typically they appear turquoise. It retains altering shade like a chameleon. The piece of flesh it has on its head resembles a cock’s comb. The unusual half about it’s that when it’s mating, the piece of flesh hangs down a span from its head like an elephant’s trunk, however then when it pulls it up it stands erect a distance of two fingers like a rhinoceros’ horn. The realm round its eyes is at all times turquoise-colored and by no means modifications. Its feathers seem like of various colours, in contrast to a peacock’s feathers.”
The delighted ruler known as for his most prized court docket artist to color the brand new curiosity. This meant Mansur, who the good BN Goswamy described in his The Spirit of Indian Portray: Shut Encounters with 101 Nice Works 1100-1900 as “actually a person of extraordinary skills [who] finds point out as Ustad Mansur, a grasp in his personal proper. And when that is adopted by the majestic-sounding title that the emperor conferred upon him – Nadir-al Asr, which means the Rarity of the Occasions – one is aware of that he had reached the height of his abilities, and of fame.”
Goswamy provides: “As a painter of wildlife Mansur was with no rival. A beautiful vary of flowering crops aside, work of falcons and hawks, partridges and cranes, floricans and barbets, hornbills and pheasants and peafowls bear his identify. Every is a masterly research. If a zebra was introduced in from Abyssinia, it was Mansur who was known as upon to attract a ‘portrait’ of the unusual beast; if a turkey cock was introduced in by a noble from Goa, and the emperor went right into a paroxysm of pleasure on the sight of this ‘unusual and fantastic’ fowl, ‘similar to I had by no means seen’, it was Mansur once more who was requested to color it ‘in order that the amazement that arose from listening to of [the likes of them] could be elevated’. Clearly, it was this grasp painter’s uncanny powers of remark and his mastery of brush and palette that made him the emperor’s first selection.”
Was a descendent of Jahangir’s prize handed on to Isfahan and Istanbul, sparking the assumption of an Indian origin? Did copies of Mansur’s portray wing from court docket to court docket like 17th-century Instagram? Might it’s that different specimens handed by Goa into the European commerce, presumably through Kerala (the Portuguese managed Kochi from 1503-1663)?
Regardless of the case, by the point Jean-Baptiste Tavernier started travelling in Safavid territories within the 1630’s he was in a position to file the presence of “poulet d’Indes” and, barely earlier nonetheless, the extraordinary Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi – a Ottoman translation about Columbus’s discoveries – describes the fi diyar na hind tavagu, or “the hen of the land of India.”
Not solely is that this family tree of “the Indian fowl” comparatively clear, it additionally suitably explains why the primary English travellers to North America recognised the “turkey cocks” that crossed their paths. Which brings us to the custom of Thanksgiving – usually ruefully (and aptly) known as Thanks-taking by the victims of the American experiment – which truly has little to do with the Pilgrims and their bounty, and was truly instituted by writ of Abraham Lincoln to assuage the nation after the carnage at Gettysburg. Although its foundational fantasy is about in Plymouth in 1621, turkeys had arrived in England no less than 70 years earlier.
An prolonged dialogue
Earlier this week, to search out out what he thought of all this, I wrote to Jonathan Gil Harris of Ashoka College, whose rollicking, singular The First Firangis: Exceptional Tales of Heroes, Healers, Charlatans, Courtesans & different Foreigners who Grew to become Indian unravels a bunch of fascinating transcultural histories, together with that of Mandu Firangi, a overseas artist within the Mughal court docket of Akbar (who was Jahangir’s father), in an period when the court docket artists “started an prolonged dialogue with European artwork, because of a sudden inflow of prints that arrived in India with Portuguese merchants and missionaries”.
Harris – who has additionally written the completely pleasant Masala Shakespeare – jogged my memory of Twelfth Evening, written by Shakespeare wrote in 1601, the place Fabian ridicules Malvolio by declaring, “Contemplation makes a uncommon turkey-cock of him. How he jets beneath his superior plumes!” About my transmission theories about how the turkey acquired its identify, he mentioned, “The Maritime Silk Highway led from the western Indian ports to Hormuz, Basra, and Muscat, although a lot of the Portuguese Indian Ocean commerce was shipped from Hormuz across the Cape of Good Hope to Lisbon. Nonetheless, items from Goa may have been transported to Istanbul through the Pink Sea ports and Cairo. And lots of Mughal objects travelled overland to Istanbul through Persia. There was actually site visitors in miniatures!”
This description of “the again doorways” to Europe, delivered to thoughts Ranjit Hoskote and Ilija Trojanow’s Confluences: Forgotten Histories from East to West, a slender, finely wrought polemic towards “ideologues of purity who imagine that societies can solely perform after they boast of a homogenous, home-grown tradition that has developed from the core of a sure nation: one custom, one faith, one individuals.” In a chapter entitled “The Making of Europe”, they argue that it’s ahistorical and fallacious to presume “Europe has at all times been powered by its central and western components.”
I wrote to Hoskote to ask him about my turkey ideas, and he shortly responded, “It has a lot to do with the truth that the Mughals and the varied European powers have been each a part of the identical massive technique of globalisation throughout the 16th century. The silver that was minted into the Mughal rupee was mined in what had as soon as been the lands of the Inca and got here to India through the Philippines; textiles from Mughal India went the opposite method, and are to be present in Malacca and in Manila. The turkey got here to the Mughal court docket from Portuguese-ruled Goa within the early 17th century, drawn from the circulations of commerce and exploitation and incipient empire in North America.”
Hoskote added: “I nicely bear in mind the day within the autumn of 2003, when Nancy [his wife, the curator and critic Nancy Adajania] and I have been in a Turkish-owned grocery retailer on Schillerstrasse, off München Hauptbahnhof – we spent three months in Munich on a residency that 12 months – and our eyes fell on a package deal of sliced turkey marked, in Roman script as Turkish is, in fact, ‘Hindi’. We fell about laughing once we realised that this was, in actual fact, turkey – and into each our minds, concurrently, there flashed the fantastic picture of Mansur’s turkey, rendered for Jehangir, exactly the one that you’re writing about. The circulations went round and throughout the way in which in a number of instructions and alongside a number of lattices, by commerce and diplomatic channels. Your principle is greater than believable.”
Vivek Menezes is a photographer, author and co-founder and co-curator of the Goa Arts + Literature Competition.
— to scroll.in